SES 04 Reading

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Questions 1-10 refer to the following passage.

The most familiar speleothems (from the Greek word spelaion for cave and thema for
deposit), the decorative dripstone features found in caves, are stalactites and stalagmites. Stalactites hang downward from the ceiling of the cave and are formed as drop after drop of water slowly trickles through cracks in the cave roof. Stalagmites grow upward from the floor of the cave, generally as a result of water dripping from an overhead stalactite. A column forms when a stalactite and a stalagmite grow until they join. A "curtain" or "drapery" begins to form on an inclined ceiling when drops of water trickle along a slope.

Natural openings on the surface that lead to caves are called sinkholes, or swallow
holes. Streams sometimes disappear down these holes and flow through the cavern. Rivers may flow from one mountain to another through a series of caves. Some caverns have sinkholes in their floors. Water often builds up a rim of dripstone around the edge of the hole.

Dripping water often contains dissolved minerals as well as acid. These minerals too will be deposited; and they may give rich coloring to the deposits. If minerals in the water change, layers of different colors may be formed.1947


(QUESTION) Stalagmites are formed by

Sinkholes are

Which speleothem grows upward from the floor ?

An "inclined ceiling" is one which

Which of the following are NOT caused by dripping water ?

The information in the passage is most relevant to which field of study ?

"Curtains" can also be called

The word speleothem comes from which language?

Stalagmites are formed by

Which speleothem hangs from the ceiling of a cave?

Questions 11-20 refer to the following passage

Horse owners who plan to breed one or more mares should have a working knowledge of heredity and know how to care for breeding animals and foals. The number of mares bred that actually conceive varies from about 40 to 85 percent, with the average running less than 50 percent. Some mares that do conceive fail to produce living foals. This means that, on average, two mares are kept a whole year to produce one foal, and even then, some foals are disappointments from the standpoint of quality.

By careful selection, breeders throughout history have developed various kinds of horses with a wide variety of characteristics to suit many different needs. The Great Horse of the Middle Ages, for example, was bred for size and strength to carry a heavily armored knight. The massive horses of such breeds are often called "cold blooded." The Arabs bred lithe desert horses that were small and swift. These animals are often referred to as "hot blooded." Cross-breeding of hot-blooded and cold-blooded horses for certain characteristics produced breeds ranging from riding horses to draft horses. The Thoroughbred is considered by many to be the highpoint of elegance and fine selective breeding. Many persons mistakenly apply the name Thoroughbred to any purebred horse. But a Thoroughbred is a distinct breed of running horses that traces its ancestry through the male line directly back to three Eastern stallions: the Byerly Turk, the Darley Arabian, and the Godolphin Barb. For convenience the breeds of horses are often divided into three major groups: (1) ponies, (2) heavy, or draft horses, and (3) light horses.


(QUESTION) Which of the following is not an example of an Eastern stallion?

Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of the Great Horse of the MiddleAges?

It can be inferred from the passage that cold-blooded and hot-blooded horses were cross-bred for what reason?

In line 11, "lithe" most nearly means

Which of the following is NOT one of the major divisions of horse breeds?

According to the passage, which of the following horses is considered to be the finest purebred?

To conceive is to

A foal is a

The average amount of mares bred which actually conceive is less than what percent?

A mare is a

Your new question!

Questions 21-30 refer to the following passage.

                Animals that produce large amounts of offspring depend upon the sheer size of the
litter for the perpetuation of their species. The young mature very quickly and are not
educated, as the parents are usually involved with obtaining their own food and with
reproduction. Should some of the offspring become endangered, the parent will not interfere, because it is not expected that all the young survive, which is the reason for a large litter.

One animal that produces large litters is the hamster. A female hamster is able to bear
young when she is six weeks to two months old. The gestation period is about 16 days.
Although an average litter size is from five to ten, hamsters commonly have as few as three or as many as a dozen offspring at a time. Mothers will sometimes eat their own young, particularly when the number of offspring is large. Females may produce litters up to an age of about 15 months at monthly intervals. The blind, hairless young begin to grow fur in two to three days. Their eyes open after about two weeks. After ten days they begin eating solid food, though the mother will continue to nurse them for about two more weeks. In captivity, a typical hamster may live for two to three years.


(QUESTION) The gestation period for hamsters is about

Female hamsters will sometimes eat their young for what reason?

Female hamsters may reproduce as young as

"Perpetuation" in line 2 means

Hamsters can produce offspring until what age?

What is the tone of the passage?

What is the BEST title for this passage ?

What is a litter?

Why would an animal parent not be able to care for its litter?

Which of the following is NOT a reason for a large litter?

Questions 31-40 refer to the following passage.

Juan Ponce de Leon was the first Spaniard to touch the shores of the present United
States. As Columbus had not remotely realized the extent of his momentous discovery, so de Leon never dreamed that his "island" of Florida was a peninsular extension of the vast North American continent. After coming to the New World with Columbus in 1493, he had led the occupation of Puerto Rico in 1508 and governed it from 1509 to 1512. In 1509, de Leon started a colony at Caparra, later abandoned in favor of San Juan. He was one of the first adelantados—men who "advanced" the Spanish Empire by conquest, subjugation of the Indians, and establishment of a semi-military government. In Puerto Rico he heard a legend about an island called Bimini, where there was said to be a spring that restored youth to all who bathed in it. It is said he was seeking this spring when he discovered Florida.

He sailed from Puerto Rico in March 1513. On Easter Sunday he sighted the coast. A
few days later he landed on Florida's east coast, near what is now St. Augustine. He named the place La Florida after the Spanish term for Easter Sunday—Pascua florida, or "flowery feast." He then sailed around the peninsula and up the west coast. He returned to Florida in 1521.


(QUESTION) In what year did de Leon discover Florida?

What was the title of the first colony started by Ponce de Leon in Puerto Rico?

What was the name of the legendary island where the fabled Fountain of Youth was said to be?

Which of the following is implied by the passage?

Pascua florida is the Spanish term for which holiday?

According to the passage, which of the following was NOT a means of advancement of the Spanish Empire in the New World?

From the passage, it can be assumed that a "peninsula" is

The tone of the word "advanced" in line 7 suggests that

According to the passage. Ponce de Leon believed the land he discovered was

Ponce de Leon was classified as an adelantado because he

Questions 41 to 50 refer to the following passage:

Any list of the greatest thinkers in history contains the name of the brilliant physicist
Albert Einstein. His theories of relativity led to entirely new ways of thinking about time, space, matter, energy, and gravity. Einstein's work led to such scientific advances as the control of atomic energy, even television as a practical application of Einstein's work.

In 1902 Einstein became an examiner in the Swiss patent office at Bern. In 1905, at
age 26, he published the first of five major research papers. The first one provided a theory explaining Brownian movement, the zig-zag motion of microscopic particles in suspension. The second paper laid the foundation for the photon, or quantum, theory of light. In it he proposed that light is composed of separate packets of energy, called quanta or photons, that have some of the properties of particles and some of the properties of waves. A third paper contained the "special theory of relativity" which showed that time and motion are relative to the observer, if the speed of light is constant and the natural laws are the same everywhere in the universe. The fourth paper was a mathematical addition to the special theory of relativity. Here Einstein presented his famous formula, E = m(cc), known as the energy mass equivalence.

In 1916, Einstein published his general theory of relativity. In it he proposed that gravity is not a force, but a curve in the space-time continuum, created by the presence of mass.
Einstein spoke out frequently against nationalism, the exalting of one nation above all
others. He opposed war and violence and supported Zionism, the movement to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine. When the Nazis came to power in 1933, they denounced his ideas. He then moved to the United States. In 1939 Einstein learned that two German chemists had split the uranium atom. Einstein wrote to President Franklin D. Roosevelt warning him that this scientific knowledge could lead to Germany developing an atomic bomb. He suggested the United States begin its own atomic bomb research.


(QUESTION) Einstein's primary work was in the area of

Which of the following inventions is mentioned in the passage as a practical application of Einstein's discoveries?

According to the passage, Einstein supported all of the following except

In which country was Einstein born?

What is "Brownian movement"?

Einstein was a citizen of all of the following countries EXCEPT

It is clear from the tone of the passage that the author feels

According to Einstein's special theory of relativity,

In line 18, the word "exalting" most nearly means

According to Einstein, light is composed of separate packets of energy called

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